西诺网

随着太阳能和风能的兴起,中国大型水坝的时代即将结束,外国网民评论

 China’s Era of Mega-Dams Is Ending as Solar and Wind Power Rise

随着太阳能和风能的兴起,中国大型水坝的时代即将结束

 3.jpg

(Bloomberg) --

(彭博社)

It’s the beginning of the end for the era of mega-dam building in China.

这是中国巨型水坝建设时代终结的开始。

China Three Gorges Corp. last week turned on the first set of generators at the massive Wudongde hydropower plant, deep in the mountains of Yunnan province. About 170 kilometers (106 miles) downstream on the Jinsha River sits Baihetan, the last of its kind, scheduled to go into operation next year.

中国三峡集团上周启动了位于云南省深山中的大型乌东德水电站的第一批发电机。金沙江下游约170公里(106英里)处是白鹤滩水电站,这是最后一个此类项目,计划于明年投入使用。

At full run, the two sites will produce more electricity than every power plant in the Philippines combined. They’re the final two mega-dams in a Chinese construction boom that goes back more than half a century, one that became increasingly mired in controversy over the trade-off between the benefits of the renewable energy and flood prevention and the social and environmental costs.

全速运行后,这两个电厂的发电量将超过菲律宾所有电厂的发电量总和。这是半个多世纪以来中国建设热潮中的最后两座巨型水坝。在可再生能源和防洪的好处与社会和环境成本之间的权衡问题上,这座大坝越来越陷入争议。

Now, China’s hydro industry is down-shifting toward smaller projects and pumped storage. Engineers have run out of the easiest locations to power massive sets of turbines and the falling cost of rival energy sources such as solar mean it isn’t worth moving on to more challenging locations.

如今,中国的水电行业正转向规模较小的项目和抽水蓄能。最容易为大型涡轮机供电的坝址,工程师们已经用完了,而太阳能等竞争能源的成本不断下降,意味着不值得前往更具挑战性的地方。

“It’s so cheap developing renewables and coal-fired power, why bother injecting huge sums of money to develop hydro 2,000 kilometers deep in the Tibetan plateau,” said Frank Yu, an analyst with Wood Mackenzie Ltd. “The future of hydro is going to be pumped storage and is also going to be smaller and smaller.”

Wood Mackenzie的分析师Frank Yu说:“可再生能源和燃煤发电的成本非常低,为什么要投入巨额资金在青藏高原2000公里深处开发水电呢?未来的水电将是抽水蓄能,而且会越来越小。”

China’s dam-building era began in the 1950s, but it reached a crescendo in the past two decades. After Baihetan gears up to full capacity in late 2022, China will have completed five of the world’s 10-biggest hydropower plants in just 10 years. China’s dams generated more electricity in 2017 than the total supply of every other country in the world besides the U.S. and India.

中国的大坝建设始于上世纪50年代,在过去20年达到顶峰。到2022年底,白鹤滩水电站将满负荷运转,届时,中国将实现在短短10年内建成世界十大水电站中的5座。2017年,中国大坝的发电量超过了除美国和印度之外的世界上所有其他国家的总发电量。

Harnessing China’s rivers, which flow from the snowy peaks in the west to the fertile deltas in the east, has always been a prime concern of its leaders. More than 4,000 years ago, the emperor known as Yu the Great gained eternal fame by employing dikes, dams and canals to control flooding that plagued the ancient civilization.

中国的河流从西边的雪峰流向东边肥沃的三角洲,如何治理这些河流一直是中国领导人最关心的问题。4000多年前,大禹通过使用堤坝、大坝和运河来控制困扰古代文明的洪水而流芳百世。

As China emerged onto the global scene in the late 1990s, so too did its dam-building industry. “Since the turn of the century, the country has more than quadrupled its installed capacity and accounted for over half of global hydropower growth,” said Samuel Law, an analyst for the International Hydropower Association.

随着中国在20世纪90年代末登上全球舞台,中国的水坝建设行业也随之崛起。国际水电协会的分析师Samuel Law称:“自世纪之交以来,中国的装机容量增加了两倍多,占全球水电增长的一半以上。”

The modern mega-dam building period began in earnest with the long-touted project to block the Yangtze River at the base of the Three Gorges, a series of narrow passageways between mountains that hem in China’s longest river.

现代巨型大坝的建设时期正式开始,这一备受吹捧的工程将在三峡大坝的底部阻断长江。三峡是中国最长的河流在群山之间的一系列狭窄通道。

The project was unusually controversial in China. Proponents touted the benefits of clean energy, improved navigation and the chance to tame one of the nation’s most flood-prone rivers. Opponents focused on the million-plus people who would be forced to resettle from the narrow strips of fertile orange groves along the river’s edge to harsher environments on higher ground, along with the loss of cultural and archaeological sites.

该项目在中国引起了不同寻常的争议。支持者们大肆宣扬清洁能源的好处,改善航运状况,驯服最易泛滥的河流。反对者称超过百万人口将被迫从河边肥沃的橘色带迁移到地势较高,环境严酷的地区,而且还会损失文化和考古遗址。

Work began in 1994 and when the final generator was switched on in 2012 it became the largest hydropower plant in the world, generating 22.5 gigawatts. Two more massive projects, the 6.4-gigawatt Xiangjiaba and the 13.9-gigawatt Xiluodu, were completed in 2014 on the Jinsha River, which feeds into the Yangtze. Along with Wudongde and Baihetan, the 1,200-kilometer stretch of water will have five of the 10 largest hydropower plants on earth.

该项目于1994年开始,2012年最后一个发电机启动时,它成为了世界上最大的水电站,发电容量为2250万千瓦。在流入长江的金沙江上,另外两个大型工程向家坝和溪洛渡在2014年完工,发电容量分别为640万千瓦和1390万千瓦。这片1200公里的水域,连同乌东德和白鹤滩,将拥有世界上最大的10座水电站中的5座。

After Wudongde and Baihetan, there are no dams bigger than 10 gigawatts are under construction or in planning or permitting stages, according to Pavan Vyakaranam, senior power analyst at GlobalData.

据GlobalData高级电力分析师帕万•维亚卡拉南分析,在乌东德和白鹤滩之后,目前在建、规划或审批阶段的大坝没有超过1000万千瓦的。

“Although the country has a strong pipeline of mega hydropower projects, it has mostly exhausted its major potential sites and there is reduced scope for new announcements,” he said.

他说:“尽管中国拥有大量大型水电项目,但主要的潜在坝址已经基本耗尽,建设新大坝的余地已经缩小。”

As China’s dam builders pack up their tools at home, they are expanding overseas. China’s major development banks have financed nearly $44 billion worth of hydropower projects globally since 2000, according to researchers at Boston University’s Global Development Policy Center.

当中国的水坝建造商在国内收起他们的工具时,他们正在向海外扩张。波士顿大学全球发展政策中心的研究人员称,自2000年以来,中国的主要开发银行为全球水电项目提供了价值近440亿美元的资金。

“Chinese hydro companies are investing heavily in other countries in South Asia, South East Asia, Africa and Latin America,” said GlobalData’s Vyakaranam.

GlobalData的Vyakaranam表示:“中国水电公司正在南亚、东南亚、非洲和拉丁美洲的国家大举投资。”

 

以下是美国雅虎读者的评论:

译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/p/50263.html    译者:Jessica.Wu

Dirty rupees

Soon Nepal will be on the list as well.Nepal consumes 2nd in water resources in the world.There are numbers of mega hydro project construction going on in Nepal.If India does not interfere Nepal,Nepal will produce the cheapest electricity in the future.

不久,尼泊尔也将榜上有名。尼泊尔消耗的水资源全球排名第二。尼泊尔有许多大型水电项目正在建设中。如果印度不干预,未来尼泊尔将生产的电力将是最便宜的。

 

PLC

You cannot have an electrical grid based on solar and wind only as those power sources vary greatly with weather and time of day. Hydro power, on the other hand, is perfectly clean and dependable 24x7.

不能仅仅依靠太阳能和风能来建立电网,这些能源供应不稳定,随着天气和时间的变化而变化。另一方面,水力发电是全天候的,而且清洁、稳定。

 

转载请注明出处!:首页 > 网贴翻译 > 美国 » 随着太阳能和风能的兴起,中国大型水坝的时代即将结束,外国网民评论