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美版知乎:中国文化正在复兴吗

Is Chinese culture currently undergoing a renaissance?

中国文化正在复兴吗?

以下是Quora读者的评论:

Jamie Cawley, LIved in China 2012-2018, now Hong Kong

When I arrived in China, six years ago, it seemed to me there was a clear divide:

everything modern was western

everything Chinese was old (or a copy of old things)

This is still overwhelmingly true: As an exercise I asked my design students to give me any ideas for what a Chinese car would look like - that is an identifiably Chinese car as opposed to a copy of existing western-derived model styles and they really came up with nothing: no idea how to start thinking about this concept. Not interested either.

Embarrassingly, I have seen some western designers make a perfectly decent job of such an exercise with Chinese-style office furniture.

However, before I left Beijing I started to see a few glimmerings at 798 (and what a great place that is!) of original Chinese modern design which was very exciting.

My perception of TV, music and movies is as above as well, still copying western genres with the exception of those inspired by ancient Chinese legends - even the ‘kung-fu’ is a western idea of China (from the original TV series and HK Bruce Lee movies) copied back. Maybe someone will correct this but I do not accept that the huge number of period soaps with wicked Japanese are any kind of distinctively Chinese culture.

I am told that the position in fashion is better, with much more Chinese+modern input but do not personally follow this area.

At the moment the students I deal with remain just uninterested in the idea of developing a modern Chinese culture - being able to get up there with western ideas is what they want, so I think it may be a while before momentum develops behind Chinese culture.

I would love to be wrong, Paul, but so far my attempts to observe and promote a contemporary Chinese culture have largely failed. I hope your question with throw up some counter examples.

六年前,当我来到中国时,我觉得这里有一种明显的文化割裂:

一切现代的都是西方的,

一切中式的都是老旧的(或老物件的复制品)

现在这仍然是压倒性的事实:作为练习,我让我的学生想想中国汽车会是什么样子——一眼就能看出的中国汽车,不是西方车型的仿款,他们真的一点都没结果:不知道该如何开始构思这个概念。也不感兴趣。

而令人尴尬的是,我曾见过一些西方设计师设计出了相当不错的中式办公家具。

不过,在我离开北京之前,我开始在798看到了中国现代原创设计的一些亮点(这是一个多么棒的地方啊!)

在我看来,电视、音乐和电影也是如此,除了那些受中国古代传说启发的电影之外,一样还是照搬西方流派——甚至“中国功夫”也是照搬西方对中国的看法(源自原版电视剧和香港李小龙电影)。也许有人会纠正这一点,但我不认为充斥着大批邪恶日本人的历史肥皂剧是种独特的中国文化。

我被告知时尚界要好一些,有更多的中国+现代的结合,但我个人并不关注这个领域。

目前,我接触的学生仍然对提升现代中国文化的想法不感兴趣——他们希望能赶上西方的创意,所以我认为中国文化的发展可能还需要一段时间。

Paul,我希望我是错的,但到目前为止,我观察和推广当代中国文化的尝试基本上都失败了。我希望有人能对你的问题提出一些反例。

 

Joseph Holleman, CEO of Magister Technologies Inc., Author of "The Prosperity Clock" book series.

I would suggest that China is not undergoing a renaissance but is just now starting one.

In fact, Donald Trump may have inadvertently been a catalyst for this by galvanizing the Chinese people to see that their own culture of thousands of years, their own collective creativity, their own innovativeness (at least at this point in time) is just as good, if not better than what there is in the West and it is time to stop wanting to emulate Western ideals, economic policies, and politics.

Not to imply that those sentiments did not already exist, just that now with Trump threatening them with a trade war, threatening major Chinese companies, etc., that now the entire population is thinking it is time to become completely independent of the West and go their own way.

The long term cyclical work I have done for my books suggests that the Eastern world often lags one cyclical stage behind the West, at least until that part of the world emerges as the dominant region.

So now you have a period where the US just recently exited its own renaissance period and has entered into its next cyclical stage which is a “secondary crisis” period where established institutions tend to be torn down and experience a period of “disintegration”. This will likely be the opening that the East, primarily China, needs to emerge as the dominant economic power in the world in the upcoming decades.

In the East, however, because of this cyclical lag, we should see China and the rest of the East now beginning its own 40 to 50 year Renaissance period while the West struggles with a period of internal crisis.

我想说的是,中国并没有正在经历复兴,而是刚刚开始复兴。

事实上,唐纳德·特朗普可能在无意之中成为了复兴的催化剂,他让中国人民看到了自己国家几千年的文化,集体创造力,创新(至少在现代)即使没有西方优秀,也是很优秀的,是时候停止效仿西方理想、经济政策和政治的想法了。

我并不是说这些情绪不存在,只是说现在特朗普用贸易战威胁他们,威胁中国的大公司等等,现在所有人都认为中国应该独立于西方,走自己的路了。

我为我的书所做的长期的周期性研究表明,东方世界经常落后于西方世界,至少在东方世界成为主导地区之前是如此。

现在,美国刚刚走出了自己的文艺复兴时期,进入了下一个周期阶段,这是一个“二次危机”时期,在这个时期,已建立的机构往往会被摧毁,并经历一段“”时期。这可能是一个契机,让东方国家(主要是中国)在未来几十年里成为世界经济的主导力量。

然而,在东方,由于这种周期性的滞后,我们会看到中国和东方其他国家现在开始了自己40到50年的复兴时期,而西方则在与内部危机作斗争。

 

Godfree Roberts, Ed.D. Education & Geopolitics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (1973)

Don’t confuse two very different things, culture and cultural artifacts.

We typically call cultural artifacts ‘art,’ like music and painting, poetry and furniture and architecture. Their form is influenced by the culture that produces them (German classical music is bombastic and martial, for example) but there is no strict 1:1 coherence between a culture and its artifacts. As cultures grow more prosperous they tend to produce more and better-quality artifacts, as you see during China’s Song and France’s Enlightenment periods.

A culture, on the other hand, is the pre-solved environment in which a society lives and needs no artifacts to survive. Being nomadic, Australia’s Aborigines had few artifacts but nevertheless sustained a sophisticated psychic culture for a thousand years. The Chinese people went through a hellish century that destroyed many of their artifacts but their culture was untouched.

One reason China’s culture remained untouched is that it is so old. It was designed 2500 years ago and first implemented 2100 years ago and has been constantly refined ever since. The current dynasty is still rebuilding it (on the same foundations) after the century of humiliation and, in the process, is refining it even more by, for example, making corruption impossible and insisting that Confucian ren, compassion, means that ‘no one is poor and everyone receives an education, has paid employment, more than enough food and clothing, access to medical services, old-age support, a home and a comfortable life’. Confucius would be extremely pleased at those refinements and they’re signs that China’s culture is currently undergoing a renaissance.

不要混淆两个非常不同的东西,文化和文化制品。

我们通常把文化制品称为“艺术”,比如音乐、绘画、诗歌、家具和建筑。它们的形式受到托生文化的影响(例如,德国古典音乐很华丽、激昂),但是文化和它的人工制品之间没有严格的1:1的对应。随着文化越来越繁荣,它们往往会创造出更多、质量更好的手工艺品,正如你在中国的宋朝和法国的启蒙时期所看到的那样。

另一方面,文化是一个社会赖以生存的预先解决的环境,不需要依赖人工制品来延续。作为游牧民族,澳大利亚的土著居民拥有很少的手工艺品,但他们仍然保持了一千年复杂的精神文化。中国人民经历了地狱般的一个世纪,许多文物被摧毁,但他们的文化却未受影响。

中国文化保持原样的一个原因是它太古老了。它形成于2500年前,在2100年前首次出现,并一直在不断完善。当代王朝在长达一个世纪的屈辱后,仍然在不断地重建它,在这个过程中,中国正在进一步完善自己的文化,例如,使腐败成为不可能,并坚持儒家的仁爱思想,即“没有人是穷人,每个人都接受教育,都有工作,衣食无忧,享受医疗服务,养老保障,安居乐业。”孔子会对这些进步感到非常宽慰,这是中国文化正在经历复兴的迹象。

 

Callan Chua, Been Learning how to make it in China for the past 10 years.

This answer took me awhile to put together. To actually see if there is a cultural renaissance going on, there is a need to identify trends from previously to now. I also need to define Chinese culture which is really hard as the term culture itself is so broad base.

These are important when defining culture as it means that the Chinese culture, from a conservative outlook of technology during the Qing Dynasty, has underwent major changes to one that is very open to new technology. It would not be silly if we predict that in the future, the term “Very Chinese”, can be used to describe the characteristic of willingness to try new technologies. Somewhere along the lines of very Japanese when it comes to politeness or very European for socialist ideas. I think it’s very possible for future Chinese culture to be understood in that manner.

If we also take food as culture, Chinese food has mainly remained the same in essence and the changes is mostly only in presentation. Surprisingly, I don’t see a lot of cultural change to chinese food. I was expecting more from the chinese in terms of changes to the taste or methods of cooking which would mean a fundamental change in food culture. Or maybe I have not eaten enough yet? I think a better explanation would be that the food renaissance has always been going on or might already be over for the chinese, the variety of real chinese food in China is proof of my conculsion.

So yes, I think Chinese culture is largely going through a period of renaissance, but it’s awareness and recognition is still rather domesticated within the borders. It will spread internationally once it reaches critical mass…and the Chinese with a very big domestic market has a lot of mass.

我花了一段时间才整理出答案。要了解文化复兴是否真正在进行,有必要确定从以前到现在的趋势。我还需要定义何为中国文化,这是很困难的,文化一词本身所涉及的基础非常广泛。

这些在定义文化时是很重要的,因为它意味着中国文化,从清代保守的科技观念开始,已经经历了重大的变化,对新技术非常开放。如果我们预测,未来人们用“非常中国化”这个说法来描述尝试新技术的意愿,也并非痴人梦话。相同的,在礼貌问题上,我们可以说“非常日本化”,或者在社会主义思想上,则可以说“非常欧洲化”。我认为未来的中国文化很有可能以这种方式被人们所理解。

如果我们把食物也当作一种文化来看待,中国食物在本质上基本保持不变,有所变化的基本也只是菜品呈现的形式。令人惊讶的是,我没有看到中国食物有太多的文化变化。我希望中国人在口味和烹饪方法上做出更大的改变,这将意味着饮食文化的根本改变。或者我可能品尝的还不够多?我认为更好的解释是,对于中国人来说,食物复兴一直在进行,或者可能已经结束了,在中国,真正的中国食物的多样性证明了我的观点。

所以,是的,我认为中国文化在很大程度上正在经历一个复兴时期,但它的意识和认知度仍然局限在中国国内。一旦达到临界量,它将开始在国际上传播,中国拥有庞大的人口,是一个庞大的市场。

Traditional Chinese Caligraphy

传统中国书法

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Traditional Chinese Dance

传统中国舞蹈

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Modern Chinese Dance

现代中国舞蹈

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Traditional Chinese Instruments

传统中国乐器

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Modern Chinese Instrument? (Yes I’m told it is, despite it looking like a dish rack)

现代中国乐器?(是的,我就是这么被告知的,尽管它看起来像是碗碟架)

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