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美媒:印度通往全球超级大国的道路,要靠建造更多航空母舰

India's Path to Global Superpower Is Through Building More Aircraft Carriers

印度通往全球超级大国的道路,要靠建造更多航空母舰

Key point: India has great ambitions and that includes having more carriers, but they are very expensive and hard to build.

With one large carrier in service and another on the way, India has become one of the world’s pre-eminent naval aviation powers. How did the program come about? Where is it going? And what is the strategic rationale for India’s massive investment in aircraft carriers?

The Origins of India’s Carriers

Despite considerable economic challenges, India took carrier aviation very seriously in the years after independence. Unlike China (or even the Soviet Union), India focused on carriers instead of submarines. INS Vikrant, a Majestic-class light carrier, served from 1961 until 1997, fighting effectively in the 1971 war. INS Viraat, formerly the Centaur-class carrier HMS Hermes, joined the Indian Navy in 1987 and served until 2016. These carriers gave the Indian Navy long-term experience in carrier ops, as well as a compelling organizational logic for maintaining a carrier capability.

要点:印度有很大的野心,包括拥有更多航母,但航母造价非常昂贵,建造难度极大。

凭借一艘现役大型航母及一艘即将服役的航母,印度已经成为世界上最出色的海军航空强国之一。这个项目是如何拟定的?走向何方?印度大规模投资航空母舰的战略依据是什么?

印度航母的起源

尽管面临着相当大的经济挑战,印度在独立后的几年里非常重视航母。与中国(甚至苏联)不同,印度看重的是航母而不是潜艇。维克兰特号是一艘华丽的轻型航母,从1961年服役到1997年,在1971年的战争中有效作战。前半人马座级航母“爱马仕”号1987年加入印度海军,服役至2016年。这些航母为印度海军在航母作战方面提供了长期经验,同时也为维持航母能力提供了令人信服的组织逻辑。

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By the early 2000s, Viraat was showing her age. The supply of second-hand carriers, long dominated by the Royal Navy’s World War II relics, had narrowed considerably. Instead of building a new ship itself, India determined to acquire an older Soviet carrier, the former Kiev-class warship Admiral Gorshkov, which had been out of service since the 1990s. India paid in excess of $2 billion for a massive reconstruction that left the ship nearly unrecognizable, with a ski-jump deck and transformed weapon systems. When accepted into service in 2014, the new 45,000-ton INS Vikramaditya could operate around twenty MiG-29K fighters, along with utility helicopters. Despite cost-overruns and serviceability problems, the ship offered the Indian Navy the chance to redevelop its aviation muscles after years of operating only VSTOL (vertical and/or short take-off and landing) aircraft from Viraat.

21世纪初,维拉特的服役年限问题就开始显现了。长期以来,二手航母的供应一直由英国皇家海军的二战遗物垄断,数量已大幅减少。印度没有自己建造新航母,而是决定购买一艘年限更久远的苏联航母,前基辅级军舰“戈尔什科夫上将”号,这艘航母自上世纪90年代以来就退役了。印度花费了超过20亿美元对其进行大规模重建,改得焕然一新,还加装了滑跃式甲板和改造后的武器系统。2014年服役时,新的4.5万吨“维克拉马迪雅”号可以装载大约20架米格- 29k战斗机以及多用途直升机。尽管存在成本超支和适用性问题,这艘航母依然为印度海军提供了一个重塑其航空实力的机会,此前多年来印度海军只能从维拉特号起降VSTOL(垂直和/或短距起降)飞机。

Vikramaditya was only the first step towards recapitalizing the aviation wing of the Indian Navy. The second step was the new INS Vikrant, a 40,000-ton ski-jump carrier built in India’s Cochin Shipyard. Laid down in 2009, Vikrant is expected to finally enter service around 2020, with an air wing similar to that of Vikramaditya. The construction process has witnessed a number of setbacks, many of which are to be expected from a first effort at carrier construction.

For the time being, India has decided to stick with the MiG-29K as its primary naval combat aircraft, rather than the Su-33, the F/A-18 or the Dassault Rafale. Both Boeing and Dassault remain at least somewhat hopeful of exporting carrier-borne fighters to India. Even Saab expressed an interest in converting the Gripen for naval service. The Indian Navy also contemplated developing a navalized version of the HAL Tejas, but (for now) has wisely rejected the complicated effort to convert the troubled fighter.

维克拉马迪雅只是印度海军航空支队资产重组的第一步。第二步是新的维克兰特号,一艘在印度科钦造船厂建造的4万吨滑跃起飞式航母。“维克兰特”于2009年开始建造,预计将于2020年左右最终投入使用,拥有与“维克拉马迪雅”类似的空中支队。建设过程中遇见了一些挫折,其中有许多挫折在航母建造的初期努力中就预见到。

目前,印度决定继续使用米格- 29k作为其主要的海军战斗机,而非苏-33、F/A-18或“阵风”战斗机。波音和达索至少仍对向印度出口舰载战斗机抱有一定的希望。甚至萨博也表示有兴趣为海军改装“鹰狮”。印度海军也考虑开发光辉战机的海军版,但(目前)明智地否决了改造这架麻烦战斗机的复杂努力。

Strategic Rationale

India’s carrier force has developed a three-pronged rationale for its purpose. The first prong is support of a conventional war against Pakistan, which would involve strikes against Pakistani naval assets and land bases. Unfortunately, Vikrant and Vikramadityawould struggle in strike operations because of limitations on aircraft weight, although they certainly would attract Pakistani attention. Second, the carriers make the Indian Navy the preeminent force in the Indian Ocean, better able to command the area than any foreign competitor. Indian carriers will always have better access to bases and support facilities in the Indian Ocean than China, the United Kingdom, or even the United States, and the presence of the carriers facilitates the projection of Indian power and the management of trade protection.

The third prong involves geopolitical competition with China. With the anticipated commissioning of its second large carrier, China has managed to leapfrog Indian naval aviation development in a relatively short period of time. Although China lacks India’s experience with carriers, it boasts a remarkably efficient shipbuilding industry and an increasingly sophisticated aviation sector, making it less dependent on foreign technology. Although India may struggle to keep up with Chinese construction, it can leverage geography (proximity to bases) to its advantage in the most likely areas of any conflict.

战略原理

印度的航母部队已经为其目标制定了三管齐下的安排。首先是支持对巴基斯坦的常规战争,包括对巴基斯坦海军设备和陆地基地的打击。不幸的是,因为飞机重量有限,维克兰特和维克拉马迪雅在打击行动中会遇到困难。其次,这些航母使印度海军成为印度洋上最杰出的力量,比任何外国竞争对手都更有能力控制该地区。与中国、英国甚至美国相比,印度航母永远都更容易接近位于印度洋的基地和支持设施,而且航母的存在有利于印度实力的展示,并进行贸易保护。

第三个方面涉及与中国的地缘政治竞争。随着第二艘大型航空母舰的预期试航,中国在相对较短的时间内成功地超越了印度海军航空力量的发展。尽管相较于印度对于航母的经验,中国依然相对缺乏,但中国拥有非常高效的造船业和日益成熟的航空力量,使其对外国技术的依赖程度有所降低。尽管印度可能难以跟上中国的建设步伐,但它可以在冲突最有可能发生的地区利用地理优势(更接近基地)。

What to Expect from the Indian Navy

The next step in India’s naval aviation project will be INS Vishaal, a 65,000-ton conventionally propelled, domestically produced CATOBAR (Catapult Assisted Take-Off But Arrested Recovery) carrier. With experience gleaned from the experience with Vikrant, the design and construction of the carrier will hopefully go more smoothly. It appears as if India will have unprecedented access to U.S. technology for the construction of Vishaal, including the EMALS electromagnetic catapult system used on the Gerald R. Ford class. Unlike Vikrant or Vikramaditya, Vishaal will be able to launch and recover heavy strike aircraft, as well as early warning planes such as the E-2 Hawkeye. Vishaal is supposed to enter service by 2030, although that timeline may be optimistic.

More recently, a spate of rumors has suggested that India might try to acquire one of the variants of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. Deciding to buy the F-35 (and then going through with it) would deeply tax India’s military procurement bureaucracy, however, and would require a great deal of forbearance from U.S. export control officials. Still, the F-35C is the world’s most modern carrier fighter, and INS Vishaal could surely operate the plane.

对印度海军有什么期待

印度海军航空项目的下一步将是INS Vishaal,这是一艘65000吨的常规推进的国产CATOBAR(弹射器辅助起飞与拦阻式降落)航空母舰。根据维克兰特号的经验,航母的设计和建造有望更加顺利。这么看来,印度将破天荒地获得美国的Vishaal技术,包括用于Gerald R. Ford级的EMALS电磁弹射系统。与维克兰特或维克拉马迪雅不同,Vishaal将能够发射和回收重型攻击机以及E-2鹰眼(Hawkeye)等早期预警飞机。Vishaal航母预计将于2030年投入使用,但这个时间表有可能过于乐观。

最近有大量传言称,印度可能试图购买F-35联合攻击战斗机的某种改型。然而,购买F-35的决定将使印度的军事采购机构承受沉重的负担,同时还需要美国出口管制官员付出极大容忍。尽管如此,F-35C仍然是世界上最现代化的航空母舰战斗机,而Vishaal航母肯定可以装载这架飞机。

Next Steps

By the early 2030s, India plans to have three active carriers. At that point, the next presumed step will be to replace INS Vikramaditya; although lightly used, her hull is already thirty years old, and she will be less capable than the other two ships. If Vishaal is at all acceptable, India’s best bet would be simply to build more of that design, which would allow the capture of construction efficiencies will also enabling incremental improvements. Although the Indian Navy has toyed with the idea of nuclear propulsion, it really doesn’t need a nuclear carrier; the strategic tasks of the navy should keep it relatively close to home, and building nuclear propulsion into the design would result in three different carriers with three different designs, limiting efficiency and co-operability.

下一个步骤

到本世纪30年代初,印度计划拥有三艘现役航母。截至那时,下一步假定将取代维克拉马迪雅号;虽然很少使用,但它的船身已经有30年的历史了,它的作战能力比不上其他两艘航母。如果Vishaal符合要求,印度最好的选择将是简单地建造更多相同设计的航母,这将提高并逐步改善建造效率。尽管印度海军一直在考虑核能推进,但印度真的不需要核动力航母;海军的战略任务应该使其相对接近本土,在设计中建造核推进系统将导致三艘不同设计的航母,限制了使用效率和协同操作性。

Conclusion

India has committed to carrier aviation, and has the resources and experience to develop a successful force. However, India still faces some big decisions, including the choice of a new carrier fighter and the design characteristics of its flagship class of fleet carriers. Much will depend on how successfully India masters the difficulties of large-scale shipbuilding, and how well it integrates new technologies into the design and construction process.

Robert Farley, a frequent contributor to the National Interest, is author of The Battleship Book. He serves as a senior lecturer at the Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce at the University of Kentucky. His work includes military doctrine, national security and maritime affairs. He blogs at Lawyers, Guns and Money, Information Dissemination and the Diplomat. This first appeared in April 2018.

总结

印度一直致力于发展航空母舰,并拥有资源和经验来组建一支优秀的部队。然而,印度仍然面临一些重大决定,包括选择何种设计来建造新型航母战斗机和旗舰级航母。这在很大程度上将取决于印度能否成功地解决大规模造船的难点,以及能否将新技术很好地融入设计和建造过程。

罗伯特·法利是《战舰》一书的作者,也是《国家利益》杂志的热门作者。他是肯塔基大学帕特森外交与国际商务学院的高级讲师。他的工作包括军事理论、国家安全和海事事务。他在《律师》、《枪支与金钱》、《信息传播》和《外交官》上发表博客。这篇文章首次刊发于2018年4月。

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译文来源:三泰虎    http://www.santaihu.com/48443.html       译者:Joyceliu

外文链接:https://news.yahoo.com/indias-path-global-superpower-building-140000424.html

o_oholycrapyesterday

Instead of nations building these carriers to function as political tools, the $ could be used to do more meaningful good to the people instead, and that goes beyond just India

与其让这些航母成为政治工具,还不如把这些钱用在对人民更有意义的事情上。

 

Anonymous

while they were trying to land on the moon, they had a software glitch, and they could not understand what the tech support guy was saying, so it crashed into the moon.

当他们试图登陆月球时,他们遭遇了软件故障,他们听不懂技术支持人员在说什么,结果撞向了月球。

 

W

don't forget to close the hatch before set sail

启航前可千万别忘了关舱门哦。

 

Robert

If India is wanting to be a Global Superpower, they need to build more than aircraft carriers, they will need nuclear ballistic submarines and nuclear attack submarines as well as a good economy to support their population as well as military.

如果印度想成为全球超级大国,他们需要建造的不仅仅是航空母舰,还需要核弹道潜艇和核攻击潜艇,以及良好的经济来支撑他们的人口和军队。

 

Ramjiyesterday

Let India build toilets for its citizens first?

The economy of India is in tanks and wants to become super power with space program while farmers are commiting suicide as they are unable to pay debts.

印度先给公民们修建厕所吧?

印度经济正处于坦克时代,希望通过太空计划成为超级大国,而农民还在因无力偿还债务而绝望自杀。

 

BRIAN

Global superpower for what? Why does India need anything more than one or two helo-carriers for coastal patrol? Fulblown aircraft carriers are used to project national power over intercontinental distances. Where is India going with this? Invade LA?

全球超级大国是为了什么?为什么印度需要一艘或两艘以上的直升机航母来进行海岸巡逻?用航空母舰向洲际距离外的国家秀肌肉,印度这是想干嘛?入侵洛杉矶吗?

 

Naveed

India economy is real bad , government should help poor people instead of wasting money and starting the weapon race in the region

印度的经济真的很糟糕,政府应该帮助穷人,而不是浪费钱搞军备竞赛。

 

Scottyesterday

Sure, let them waste billions per year like the U.S. does. We have as many carriers as the rest of the world COMBINED, for no good reason other than to please military contractors.

当然没问题,让他们像美国一样每年浪费数十亿美元吧。我们拥有相当于世界其他国家航空母舰的总和,除了取悦军火商,没有其他好的理由。

 

David

And yet, they can't feed their own populace... At least they don't have to go very far to get tech support!

可惜啊,他们连自己的人民都无法养活……至少他们不用太费劲就能得到技术支持!

 

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