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quora: 中俄经济对比

Comparing the Russian and Chinese economies, the Russian economy is heavily dependent on natural resource exports, while the Chinese economy is more d

中俄经济对比:俄罗斯经济高度依赖自然资源出口,而中国经济则更依赖中国人创造的...

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Tatyana Astakhova
Answered Jul 23, 2018

In China, people who care about the technical development of the country rule because they understand that this is the Force.
And in Russia there is a bunch of oligarchs, for whom the Russian ethnos are strangers. They just pump out resources and they do not care about the development of the country.

在中国,管理层是一群关心国家科技发展的人,因为他们懂得科学就是力量。
但在俄罗斯,则是一群寡头,对他们来说俄罗斯民族只不过是陌路人。他们只是想着如何抽空这里的资源,而从不关心国家的发展。

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Greg Kemnitz
Answered Jul 21, 2018

The “China model” started out with Deng Xiaoping’s “Cat doctrine” rejection of doctrinaire Communism - “it doesn’t matter if the cat is black or white, if it catches mice, it’s a good cat” - and started following the export-driven industrialization path established by Japan, South Korea, and especially the ethnic Chinese areas of Taiwan and Hong Kong, and - a bit later - Singapore. None of these areas has much of anything in natural resources, either because they’re physically very small, or are resource-poor volcanic rocks in the sea.

“中国模式”始于邓小平用“好猫原则”摒弃了教条主义的GC主义——“不管黑猫白猫,抓住老鼠就是好猫”——并开始遵循由日本,韩国,特别是属于中华地区的台湾和香港——还有稍后的新加坡——所建立的以出口驱动的工业化道路。这些地区无一例外地缺乏自然资源,要么因为他们地理面积狭小,要么本身就是由贫瘠的海洋火山岩构成。

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Dima Vorobiev, I worked for Soviet propaganda
Answered Jul 18, 2018

Dima Vorobiev,我曾为苏联宣传部门工作

China was a settled agricultural civilization with several thousands years of written history, cultural continuity and managerial traditions beneath its belt.
Russia was a colonization project of a small group of state/military aristocracy. The wealth of our civilization most of the time was dependent not on the labor of peasants toiling the land, or the skills of state managers organizing their work, but on expanding territories and pumping them for pelts, honey, wax, slaves, timber and mineral resources.

中国是一个成熟的农业文明,拥有数千年有文字记载的历史,在国家的外表之下是她的文化延续性和管理传统。
俄罗斯则是一个由国家/军事贵族集团进行殖民计划的产物。我们的文明财富大多数时候不是依赖农民耕耘土地的劳作,或组织这些劳动的国家管理技巧;而是通过领土扩张,然后从新得到的领土上获取毛皮、蜂蜜、蜡、奴隶、木材和矿产资源。

Which is why the primary application the Chinese found for the modern technology has been manufacturing. While we predictably prefer to use it for export-oriented extractive industries, as well as for producing weapons and other means of defending the perimeter. The strategic advantage of the Chinese is their vast pool of hard-working, still relatively inexpensive workforce. Our strategic advantage is our vast expanses with an immense wealth hidden beneath them. They specialize on what they do best, we capitalize on what the nature has given us.

这就是为什么中国人把现代技术主要应用到了制造业;与此同时我们则不出意料地更倾向于将现代技术用于出口导向的采掘业,当然还有制造武器及其它周边防卫手段。中国人的战略优势,是他们勤劳且仍相对廉价的庞大劳动力资源;而我们的战略优势则是广阔的幅员,以及埋藏于其下的无尽财富。中国人专注于他们最擅长的事,而我们则利用大自然的恩赐。

The poster below is from the 1970s. It hails the construction of the export pipeline Urengoi-Pomary-Uzhgorod from West Sibiria to Europe. The rhymed text says: “We’re honored by the Motherland’s order—we’ll deliver the Siberian gas on schedule!” During its first decades, the Soviet rule made the most determined effort ever of modernizing Russia and diversifying our economy. However, a combination of the worsening economic ineffectiveness and the discovery of massive exportable petroleum deposits in Siberia in the 1960s increasingly have been dragging us back into the old paradigm of extractive economy.

一幅20世纪70年代的海报。海报歌颂的,是从西西伯利亚到欧洲的乌廉戈伊气田(Urengoi)——波马雷(Pomary)——乌日哥罗德(Uzhgorod,乌克兰城市)天然气出口管道工程。上面的韵文写着:“祖国的使命令我们光荣无比——誓要按时交付西伯利亚天然气!”在苏联的头几十年,统治者也作出过最坚定的努力,要让俄罗斯实现现代化,同时使我们的经济多样化。然而,20世纪60年代一个奇怪的历史组合——西伯利亚低效的经济严重恶化,同时却在那里发现了大规模可开采石油矿床——自那时起,我们就一直在被重新拖回到旧有的采掘型经济模式。

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Randall Burns, BA Economics, University of Chicago (1981)
Answered Jul 18, 2018

Randall Burns,芝加哥大学经济学学士(1981)

China has a huge population. The reason is that China has land that with the right irrigation infrastructure in place is productive enough to support a substantial population.
China vs Russia: Agriculture Facts and Stats

中国人口众多。这是因为中国配以适宜的灌溉基础设施的土地足够高产,从而支撑起了大量人口。
参阅《中国 VS 俄罗斯:农业现况与统计》
http://www.nationmaster.com/coun ... /Russia/Agriculture

China has more than twice as much agricultural land in production as Russia, even though Russia as a lot more overall land. However, Russia has more land area and with that comes a lot of mineral wealth.
The only way for China to develop economically is value added activities like manufacturing. Russia has other options.
Russia tried hard to develop a manufacturing economy, but had some real problems in that process when it went much beyond their military infrastructure.

尽管俄罗斯总面积要大得多,但中国的农业用地面积却是俄罗斯的两倍多。然而,俄罗斯更广阔的土地,为它带来了大量的矿产财富。
中国要发展经济,只能通过像制造业这样可以创造附加价值的途径。而俄罗斯有别的选择。
俄罗斯也曾努力尝试过发展制造业经济,但在这一过程中,一旦远离了他们的军事基础设施,真正的麻烦就出现了。

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