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quora: 中国是发展中国家吗?

Is China a developing country?

中国还是发展中国家吗?

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quora评论翻译:

Kim Iskyan, 联合创始人兼出版商, 史丹斯伯里丘乔斯研究

As some have commented, China is still under development in many areas. But from a stock market perspective, it’s hard to call China a developing, or emerging, market anymore.

就如某些人指出的,中国在很多方面仍然处于发展阶段。但是从股票市场来看的话,很难把中国称为发展中的或者新兴的市场。

The total market capitalisation of the world’s stock markets is now worth more than double it was 13 years ago. And a lot of that growth is coming from Asia’s so-called emerging markets – like China and India.

全球股市的目前总市值是13年前的两倍多。这种增长的很大部分来自亚洲所谓的新兴市场,比如中国和印度。

The total value of the world’s stock markets rose 133 percent between 2003 and 2016. At the end of 2016, stock prices multiplied by the number of shares outstanding – that is, market capitalisation – for the whole world stood at about US$65.6 trillion, compared to US$28.1 trillion thirteen years ago. The U.S. – in absolute terms – accounted for much of that growth, though U.S. markets only grew 87 percent.

从2003年到2016年间,全球股市的总价值提升了133%。到了2016年底,股票价格乘以流通在外的股票数量,就等于市值,全球市值的规模约为65.6万亿美元,而13年前为28.1万亿美元。按绝对价值计算,美国对增长有很大贡献,但美国市场只增长了87%。

Other “developed” markets, like the U.K., France, Canada and Japan saw their total market cap grow over the same period, though by a lot less than the world as a whole.
The United Kingdom, with the fifth-largest market cap, was up only 36 percent since 2003. France (number 7) rose 46 percent. Slow economic growth, EU sclerosis, and endless unx and currency troubles have crippled European markets.
The real story here is China and, to a lesser degree, India.

在同一时期,其他“发达”市场,例如英国、法国、加拿大和日本见证了他们整体市场资本额的增长,但从整体上看,占全世界比重很低。英国拥有第五大市场资本额,自2003年以来只增长了36%。法国(排名第七)上升了46%。经济增长缓慢、欧洲硬化(译注:欧洲硬化即经济增长缓慢和高失业率的危机。)没完没了的工会和货币问题已经让欧洲市场陷入瘫痪。
真正发挥作用的是中国,其次是印度。

China came from nowhere to take second place in the world ranking (it’s also home to the world’s second-largest economy). From a total market cap of US$418 billion in 2003 (or US$200 billion less than Apple’s total market cap), it grew an incredible 1,479 percent to US$6.6 trillion.
In just 13 years, China passed every country in Europe and Japan for total market cap. Today, China’s stock markets are worth more than those of France, Germany, and Switzerland – combined.

中国在世界排名中排名第二(它也是世界第二大的经济体)。从2003年的总市值为4180亿美元(比苹果的总市值少2000亿美元),到现在惊人地增长了1479%,达到6.6万亿美元。
在短短13年时间里,中国的总市值超过了欧洲的任一国家以及日本。如今,中国股市的市值超过了法国、德国和瑞士的总和。

India has also been rocketing up the rankings. It’s still not in the same league as China as far as market size, but it’s gaining on the rest of the world. Since 2003, it’s total market cap has grew 639 percent – more than any other country in the top 10… except China.

印度的排名也在不断上升。虽然印度的市场规模还没有达到中国的水平,但它在世界其他地区的市场份额却在不断上升。自2003年以来,印度的总市值增长了639%,增长速度超过了除中国以外的其他任何国家。

European markets are losing their influence
This tremendous growth in market cap since 2003 also means that Asian markets now account for a much larger share of the world’s total stock market capitalisation.
The exception to this in Asia is Japan. Its share of global market cap dropped more than 3 percentage points between 2003 and 2016. Japan has some major fundamental problems with its economy that will keep its market from growing much for years to come (and that may be spreading to the rest of the world).

欧洲市场正在丧失影响力
自2003年以来,中国股市市值的大幅增长,也意味着亚洲市场在全球股市总市值中所占的份额更大了。
亚洲的例外是日本。2003年至2016年间,日本在全球市场的份额下降了超过3个百分点。日本经济中存在一些严重的根本性问题,这将使其市场在未来几年里无法快速发展(这可能蔓延至全球)

Despite the increase in its total market capitalisation, the relative size of American stock markets has fallen sharply. At the end of 2016, the U.S. accounted for 36 percent of the world’s stock market capitalisation, compared to 45 percent in 2003. The decline of Europe’s markets has been even sharper.

尽管总市值有所增加,但美国股市的相对规模已大幅下跌。截至2016年底,美国占全球股市总市值的36%,而2003年的这一比例为45%。欧洲市场的衰退更加严重。

And it’s been the opposite for China, which had 1.5 percent of the world’s market cap in 2003. But it now has over 10 percent – that’s almost 10 times more in just 13 years. In 2003, even tiny Switzerland and sparsely populated Canada had larger stock markets than China.

而中国的情况正好相反,中国在2003年的市场份额为1.5%。但现在这个数字已经超过了10%,在仅仅13年的时间里,这个数字几乎翻了10倍。在2003年,即使是小国瑞士和人口稀少的加拿大的股票市场也比中国的股票市场更大。

And India is coming on strong. It’s now home to 2.6 percent of the world’s total stock market value. That’s up from just 0.8 percent 13 years ago. It’s now just behind Germany, France and Canada in the global rankings.

印度让人印象深刻。目前,印度股市的市值占全球股市总市值的2.6%。从13年前的0.8%增长至此。在全球排名中,紧随德国、法国和加拿大之后。

Charlie Armstrong, 就读于南艾尔德尔高中(2021)
Technically yes, but also no.
China is an interesting case when talking about developing, because it is technically classified as one.
Now everyone at this point knows China is a very advanced nation, with modern cities and high quality of life.

理论上是的,但也可以说不是。
在谈到发展的时候,中国是一个很有意思的例子,因为从技术层面来说,中国是一个发展中国家。
现在,每个人都知道中国是一个非常先进的国家,拥有现代化的城市和高质量的生活水准。

That isn’t true in all of China though. While China has many people living in modern cities with air conditioning, abundant food, and other technologies, many Chinese live in harsh conditions, working in factories for minimal wages, working in the fields harvesting food, or just generally living in a rural area without much technology or income. The reason China is able to be the number one producer of products in the world is because they are able to utilize their massive population, the ability to pay them low wages, and their many factories to produce those products.

但这在中国并非如此。尽管有许多中国人生活在现代化城市,享受空调、充足的食物和其他科技成果,但还有很多中国人生活在恶劣的环境中,他们在工厂里工作,拿着最低的工资,在田里农作求生,或者生活在农村地区,缺少技能收入匮乏。中国之所以能够成为世界上第一大产品生产国,是因为他们能够利用自己庞大的人口,可以支付很低的工资,而且中国的许多工厂能生产这些产品。

The image above shows the spread of average GDP of each province in China. The darkest red provinces are the ones with the major economic cities in China. The provinces in Western China are almost completely void of major cities, which means just about all of the population there live in rural areas. This translates to the fact these people live without modern technology, being akin to a developing country.

上图显示了中国各省平均GDP的分布情况。最暗红色的省份有着中国主要的经济城市。中国西部的省份几乎没有大城市,这说明了几乎所有的人口都生活在农村地区。也就意味着就像发展中国家那样,这些人的生活中缺少现代技术。

While some would think China is a developed country, and in some ways it is, there is a divide between the people in China that live in the wealthy cities and the ones working in the factories and fields. China won’t be able to truly become a developed country until they can fix the wage gap between these two classes, which they are working towards.

有些人会认为中国是一个发达国家,在某种程度上说是的,生活在富裕城市中的中国人和在工厂农田里劳作的中国人之间存在差异。中国将无法真正成为一个发达国家,除非他们能够解决两个阶级之间的工资差距问题,他们正在努力解决这个问题。

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