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reddit: 中国的空气污染程度下降30%

------------译者:reevechen

【In Beijing the modern city beyond the Imperial City’s north gate is visible under a clear sky during the period assessed 2013-16.】

Beijing is slowly shedding its image as the world’s most polluted city. In 2013 it ranked as the 40th worst city for the particulate PM2.5 in the World Health Organisation global database. Four years on thanks in part to a crackdown on polluters it stands in 187th place.

北京正逐渐改变它世界污染最严重城市的形象。2013年,世界卫生组织全球数据显示,北京PM2.5浓度列全球第40位。4年过去了,部分得益于对污染的严格治理,北京现在列187位。

Air pollution in the 62 Chinese cities tracked by the WHO dropped by an average of 30% between 2013 and 2016. China’s air pollution problems are often blamed on the country’s rapid industrial growth but the problems probably date back to the 1950s.

2013年2016年间,世卫组织监测的中国62个城市的空气污染平均降低了30%。人们常将中国的空气污染归咎于快速的工业发展,其实这个问题大约可以追溯至20世纪50年代。

In air pollution terms China is two countries divided by a line that follows the Huai river. North of this line average winter temperatures are below freezing and here free or heavily subsidised coal was provided for home heating. This led to the development of poorly controlled coal-powered district heating systems in towns and cities north of the river.

以淮河为界,就空气污染而言,中国犹如两个国家。这条线以北冬天气温低于冰点,政府提供免费或高补贴的煤用于家庭供暖。这使得缺乏控制、以煤为燃料的区域供暖系统在淮河以北的城镇得以发展。

The laudable aim of providing home heating was disastrous for China’s air. Average particle pollution north of the Huai river was 40% greater than the south and this extra pollution caused an estimated three-year reduction in average life expectancy.

提供家庭供暖虽值得赞赏,但对中国空气而言却是灾难性的。淮河以北的空气污染比淮河以南平均严重40%,而且据估导致人均预期寿命减少3岁。

Understandably a small but growing group of Chinese urbanites have been moving south for cleaner air.

可以理解的是,为了更清新空气,一小部分但不断增长的中国城市居民一直在向南方迁移。

评论翻译

-------------译者:willdemon

【卫报处评论】

quokkaZ 4d ago +16
China should be congratulated for such rapid improvement. It also should be congratulated for moving towards the best solution to replace coal in district heating:
CGN to construct China’s first nuclear-powered heating project

我们应该祝贺中国做出了如此快速的改善。我们还应该祝贺它正在以最佳的方案,来替代燃煤提供地方供暖:
中国广核集团正在建设中国首个核能供暖项目

It's far better than burning stuff - coal gas or trees - and the only realistic genuinely low GHG emission solution for district heating.

这项方案比燃烧——如燃煤、可燃气和树木等物质——要好多了。而且在降低由于提供区域供暖而排放的温室气体方面,它是最现实的方案。

azoicera 4d ago
Meanwhile in a democracy facing the very same problem things remain unchanged if not worse: India now has 9 of 10 most polluted cities in the world. Who doesn't like a government that delivers?

然而在一个面对同样问题的 (国家)里,如果情况没越来越糟,它便毫无作为任其维持现状:全球污染最严重的10个城市里有9个在印度。谁不会喜欢一个能够做出成果的政府?

westhaditsday 4d ago
Great news! Tributes to all scientists and policy makers to make this happen. Still a long way to go so keep up the good work!

好消息!致敬那些实现这一切的科学家和政策决策者们。仍有很长的路要走,继续努力,加油!

SFromNl 4d ago
It's getting harder and harder to not see the world's paradigm shifting.

越来越难以忽视世界思维模式的转变了。

jhvance 4d ago
The coal-related air pollution near ground level in northern China is not generally caused by power generating facilities but by the many widely-distributed district heating systems built and operated by local authorities which are routinely cash-strapped. Those systems' coal-fired furnaces are old have relatively short exhaust stacks with absolutely no scrubbing installed and are not well-maintained to begin with; the local governments minimize annual operating cost by purchasing the cheapest (and thus lowest-quality) coal possible so the individual furnaces emit high volumes of pollutants especially particulates (the small pm2.5 variety).

煤炭燃烧造成的中国北方近地面空域大气污染,并非是由于燃烧发电造成的,而是由于广泛分布的燃煤供暖系统造成的。这些供暖系统都是由地方政府负责运营的,必然会缺乏资金。 这些供暖系统中的燃煤炉已经老旧,只有相对较低矮的排放系统,没有安装任何洗涤设备,而且缺乏足够的保养。地方政府为了削减年度运营成本,只会购买最便宜的(当然也是最劣质的)燃煤,所以单个燃煤炉就会排放大量的污染物,特别是颗粒污染物(多种PM2.5的小颗粒)

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