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中式料理与日式料理之间有何区别?quora网友讨论

What are the differences between Chinese food and Japanese food?

中式与日式料理之间有何区别?

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美版知乎quora网贴翻译

-------------译者:Beren and Luthi-

Jim Gordon I've eaten for over 65 years. Have lived/visited and eaten in 37 countries sin upxed Jul 4 2011
This question is as useful (not!) as asking the difference between Italian and German cuisines.

这个问题就和提问意大利和德国菜肴的不同一样有用(没用!)

There are many similarities from preparation and cooking techniques to common use of ingredients.

从准备工作和烹饪手法到常用的原料准备上,两者有太多的相似点了。

Every cuisine comes out of the interaction of available foods and fuels which reflect location landform and climate. Religion economics and governments influence the interaction. There is a "sophistication" or esthetic factor affecting taste. The larger the country the more likely is the development of multiple cuisines.

每种菜系都来源于其食材和燃料的相辅相成,而这些食材和燃料则深受当地地理条件和气候的影响。宗教、经济和政府对这种相辅相成的作用也有所影响。世俗或者审美的因素影响着菜肴的味道。越大的国家更倾向于有着更丰富多彩的菜系。

Japan is very much a deep-water cold-water maritime nation with a scarcity of agricultural land with a temperate climate that has real winters.
Much of China has extensive arable land resources it also has a long coastline but different seafood species and parts of China have very long or multiple growing seasons. Fuel for cooking has always been very scarce and expensive.

日本无疑是个深水寒流沿海国家,有着真正冬季的气候温度,缺乏农业耕作地。中国的大部分地区有着广阔的耕地资源并且有着很长的海岸线和多样的海鲜品种,一些地区有着很长且多元化的耕作季节。用于烹饪的燃料常常缺乏并且昂贵。

In Japan rice was introduced from Southeast Asia a couple of centuries before the common era and became the staple food of the upper classes while the poorer Japanese ate millet and other grains. By the 12th century as aristocratic society was replaced by warlord feudalism rice production improved and rice became more widely available to all on a daily basis.(1 2)

稻米在公元前几个世纪由东南亚引入到日本并成了社会上层的主要食物,同时日本的贫穷阶层仍以粟和其他谷类为食。到12世纪的时候,贵族社会被武士封建主义取代,稻米的产量增长,米饭越来越普及成为了大部分日本人的日常主食。

-------------译者:老绵羊April-

In contrast rice first appeared in the Yangtze delta about 5000 b.c.e. Although agriculture developed over the centuries and imperial agricultural policy appeared less than acentury b.c.e rice production in China was less efficient and less reliable from harvest to harvest. Because of supply reliability and the crop's unsuitability for arid or cold climates rice is only the staple of some regions of China while other regions rely on breads or noodles. Although Chinese governments fostered a constructive agricultural policy toward production tax levies often pushed the population below the margin of subsistence. (3)

相比之下,大约在公元前5000年,水稻第一次出现在长江三角洲地区。尽管农业已经发展了几个世纪,帝国农业政策的实行还不足百年。在中国水稻的生产效率不高且收割产量不稳定。基于供给地不可靠性并且水稻不适合在干旱或者寒冷的地区种植,因此大米只是中国一些地区的主食而其他地区则依赖面包或面条。尽管中国政府制定了建设性的农业政策比如说征收农业生产税,但这往往是把人们推向生存的边缘。

The effects of religion and ritual were different in Japan which came to be dominated by Buddhism (with its emphatic disapproval of meat and its delicate use of ritual in eating) and China with its pragmatic traditions of multiple deities and gods and its hunger-based enthusiasm for eating anything that walked flew swam or grew.

宗教和礼仪对日本造成的影响是不同于中国的,日本宗教主要以佛教为主导(佛教坚决反对食用肉类,其宗教仪式也微妙地影响了日本的饮食方式),而在中国有许多关于神明和诸神的务实传统,人们在饥饿心理下热衷于吃各种飞禽走兽或耕种作物。

Japanese cuisine serves many more uncooked ingredients and foods than does Chinese cuisine which could not overcome technological lacks slower or more cumbersome logistics and the risks of food-borne illnesses.

比起中国料理,因无法克服技术层面的缺乏或愈加繁琐的物流情况,日本料理中有很多菜肴使用生食材料,这增加了患食源性疾病的风险。

Japanese sauces tend to be based on dashi (fish stock) shoyu (Japanese soy sauce) miso (fermented-rice/soybean paste) MSG and salt.
Chinese sauces are often based on aromatic flavorings combined with wine soy sauce vinegar sugar.

日本酱料通常是用“だし”(鱼汤)、“しょうゆ”(日本酱油)、“味噌”(发酵的酱油/豆瓣酱)、味精和盐制成的。
中国的酱汁通常以香浓的调味料和酒、酱油、醋糖为基础。

Contrary to stereotype the Japanese fry tempura and other things in deep oil. They traditionally use wasabi (horseradish) ginger mustard sansho (Japanese pepper) shiso (a plant with strongly flavored leaves and berries) and various members of the allium family as well as mild spices such as sesame and mustard seeds and powdered nuts. (3)

与其刻板印象大相径庭的是,日本人用油充分煎炸天妇罗和其他食物。他们通常使用“ワサビ”(芥末)、姜、芥末、“さんしょう”(日本胡椒)、“紫蘇”(一种带有强烈香味的叶子和浆果的植物)和各类葱属植物,以及芝麻、芥菜籽和坚果粉等温和的香料。

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